Entries by 天川希理

Aggravating factor

Aggravating factor is a cause that makes a medical condition or symptom worse.Also called exacerbating factors. They range from specific allergens that worsen allergic reactions, to lifestyle habits such as smoking and alcohol consumption that exacerbate the disease, drug interactions and psychological stress.


Tyrosinase is the enzyme responsible for the melanogenic reaction from tyrosine. It is also known by another name as monophenol monooxygenase. When the skin is exposed to UV light or other stimuli, a signal transmitter flows from keratinocytes to melanocytes, activating tyrosinase, which catalyzes the aforementioned synthetic reaction.


A catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of reaction of a particular chemical reaction. This action occurs by adsorption of molecules on the surface of the catalyst.


A polypeptide is a component of a protein, a substance made up of a large number of amino acids bonded together.


Melanin is the pigment that determines the color of skin, hair, and eyes. The ratio of melanin pigment makes a difference in these colors. Melanin protects skin and hair from UV damage. Although it is often seen negatively as a cause of sunburn and dark spots, melanin is produced to protect our bodies by darkening the skin and reducing UV […]

Tranexamic acid

Tranexamic acid is a drug used as an antiplasmin agent and has hemostatic properties. It promotes blood coagulation and inhibits bleeding. It is also used in skin care products because of its inhibitory effects on melanin production and inflammation.


Niacinamide is a type of vitamin B3. It is widely used in skin care products because of its brightening, anti-inflammatory, moisturizing, and anti-aging effects.

Kojic acid

Kojic acid is an organic acid produced by fungi of the Aspergillus genus and other specific types of microorganisms. It is known for its skin-lightening properties, effectively inhibiting melanin production to prevent tanning and pigmentation.


Hydroquinone is a dihydrinc phenol.It has the effect of inhibiting the excessive accumulation of melanin, which causes skin blemishes, and is used as a brightening agent in cosmetics, but its safety has been concerned due to frequent side effects.


Melanocytes are cells that produce the pigment and are also called melanin cells or pigment cells.They appear in the dermis, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, and meninges,and other tissues, are distributed in the basal layer of the epidermis. They synthesize melanin by intracellular tyrosinase and have the function of preventing UV-induced damage to somatic cells.